Greenland Craters are likely related Topography under the Greenland ice sheet: from JA MacGregor et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. (2019)
A couple of weeks ago, a second crater-like structure was found under the Greenland ice sheet. Although not confirmed by taking samples direct from the crater surface (which is very difficult), MacGregor et al. make it very clear they think the structure on the right of the above image is very likely a crater. It bears all the hallmarks of a crater, with a raised rim, central uplift etc.
Only a few months earlier, the Hiawatha (top left in the image above) crater was confirmed - the first crater ever found under an ice sheet. Most importantly, the Hiawatha crater is thought to be very young, geologically speaking. It might even be young enough to have been, partly, responsible for the Younger Dryas impact. This is the impact recorded at Gobekli Tepe, responsible for changes in human cultures on both sides of the Atlantic, the extinction of many species o…
The sky-twin myth

The sky-twin myth is conventionally accepted as one of the core parts of Indo-European mythology. It tells of twins, or brothers, one of whom is murdered or sacrificed while the other founds a new civilisation. In the context of comet-inspired mythology, it likely relates to a pair of comets in similar orbits, of which one crashes into Earth (dies), thereby resetting civilisation, while the other continues. Plato tells us about this cycle of cosmic catastrophes, by relating the story told to his ancestor, Solon, by an Egyptian Priest. It agrees well with Clube and Napier’s theory of coherent catastrophism, based on the Taurid meteor stream (which links this myth to bull-worship), and the latest science - the Younger Dryas impact for example. The reconstructed proto-Indo-European version tells how Manu and Yemo travel the sky with a giant cow. Yemo (or sometimes the cow) is sacrificed and Manu founds a new civilisation. Sometimes a battle with a cosmic chaos serpent …
Origin of the Egyptian Gods (Image from Wikipedia)
There's a nice article here about the origin of the Ancient Egyptian gods by Caroline Seawright, an archaeology student. It dovetails nicely with what I say in 'Prehistory Decoded'. The only thing I would change is the reason predynastic Egyptians from different regions of Egypt chose their specific animal 'guardians', or patrons. Caroline repeats the orthodox view that the animals chosen either had agricultural value or were fierce or dangerous in some way. Again, while there might be some truth to this, the deeper reason is probably that they were the zodiacal signs used by each specific community, representing either a solstice or equinox. The Ancient Egyptians were, after all, very keen on astronomy, and as I show in 'Prehistory Decoded', this tradition goes back many tens of thousands of years in Europe.
One (of many) piece of evidence to support this idea are the Cippus of Horus scenes. These images …
The Bull of Heaven

(image courtesy of Alistair Coombs) Is this when cow-worship began? In a recent peer-reviewed paper I show how these ancient cave symbols almost certainly represent constellations. At this time, the bull represented Capricornus. It was the constellation corresponding to the summer solstice at the time this painting was made, circa 15,200 BC, and also at the centre of the Taurid meteor stream. We know the date, because the four animal symbols in this scene, the Lascaux Shaft Scene (a horse is painted on the rear wall), likely represent the constellations corresponding to the four solstices and equinoxes at this time. This date also corresponds to significant climate fluctuation, observed in Greenland ice cores, and perhaps also to Earth’s intersection with the Taurid meteor stream. Therefore, this scene likely depicts a comet strike by this meteor stream, rather than a hunting trip. This is probably the reason this painting was made down a dark and difficult cave pa…
Trying out Tumblr for a while
I'll be posting on Tumblr for a while, see how it goes.
Hey, it's fun. But I'll keep posting here too.

Trying out Instagram now. See how it goes.
Prehistory Decoded Available online. 
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Product Description Nearly 13,000 years ago millions of people and animals were wiped out, and the world plunged abruptly into a new ice-age. It was more than a thousand years before the climate, and mankind, recovered. The people of Gobekli Tepe in present-day southern Turkey, whose ancestors witnessed this catastrophe, built a megalithic monument formed of many hammer-shaped pillars decorated with symbols as a memorial to this terrible event. Before long, they also invented agriculture, and their new farming culture spread rapidly across the continent, signalling the arrival of civilisation. Before abandoning Gobekli Tepe thousands of years later, they covered it completely with rubble to preserve the greatest and most important story ever told for future generations. Archaeological excavations began at the site in 1994, and we are now able to read their …
Ancient Egyptian Apis-bull

In Prehistory Decoded I link the Ancient Egyptian Apis-osiris god with comets. Just like all the other ancient bull-gods. Now, what's that on his back and head? A comet or a sun-disk?

A few more detailed images of this symbol, the counterpoint part, plus the comet in the Bayeux Tapestry. Similar?

The problem is that historians and prehistorians are generally unaware of the importance of comets to ancient cultures. This is because they, typically, do not know that a giant comet undoubtedly became trapped in the inner solar system many thousand years ago, as described in my book Prehistory Decoded. Now that we do know this, we should expect to see cometary symbolism in ancient cultures going back tens of thousand of years. But where is it? Clearly, it has been 'interpreted away' by historians and prehistorians, or, at best, interpreted as symbols of the sun, moon, planets or whatever. We need to begin from scratch, and ask how many of these symbols…
Younger Dryas Impact Bibliography
Comets drawn in a silk book of Chinese astronomy, Han dynasty (1st and 2nd Century BC) (from Wikipedia)
If you want to know more about the Younger Dryas impact, circa 10,900 BC, see the bibliography of research papers at Cosmic Tusk. Many of these papers (compiled by archaeology student, Marc Young) are mentioned in Prehistory Decoded, but I missed the article about the iridium anomaly on Bodmin Moor which, given my West Country blood, I will have to look into.
The Centaur threat to Earth A line of birds on the base of a pillar at Gobekli Tepe, courtesy of Travel The Unknown.
If you want to know why Centaurs pose the greatest cosmic threat to Earth and our civilisation, then you could try my new book 'Prehistory Decoded', available now from online booksellers.
Has archaeology become a pseudo-science? A stone 'totem pole' found at Gobekli Tepe: image courtesy of Travel the Unknown
When I started out on this journey I never thought I would need to explain or justify the scientific method to any academic, let alone those members of an academic discipline ending in ‘ology’. But over the last few years, and particularly in recent weeks, it has become clear to me that there are, indeed, some academic disciplines, even some ostensibly scientific ‘ologies’ that have diverged so far from the scientific path that they are behaving more like religions. Since publishing our ‘cave art’ paper, I have received the views of a few archaeologists who, in my opinion, are behaving irrationally. Our cave art paper is clearly a perfectly normal scientific paper. We have a zodiacal hypothesis deduced from observations at sites like Gobekli Tepe and Catalhoyuk, and we perform a perfectly sensible and fair scientific test of our hypothesis using the best dat…